On July 1st, 2021, celebrations for the centenary of the Communist Party of China began in China.
A massive colorful parade was held in Beijing, consisting of thousands of people arranged with military rigor in Tiananmen Square, dominated by the symbol of the hammer and sickle.
The highlight of the event was the speech by President Xi Jinping, according to whom, during this first centenary led by the CCP, China changed a lot, and finally achieved social stability and moderate economic prosperity. The goal to be achieved by the end of the second centenary will be to transform China into a great modern socialist country. Subsequently, the President’s words referred to the steps forward for the full political annexation of the island of Taiwan, excluding self-government of the island, and described its resurgence as a historic mission that will never be abandoned; He also reported some stabilisation in the relaunching process of the former British colony Hong Kong, especially with regard to its management policies that will try not to depart from the previous two-system state organisation. Judging by the recent protests by the Hongkonghesi, however, the process of passage under the government of the CCP is far from painless. Finally, Xi Jinping’s speech also focused on the interference of foreign powers in Chinese development and how Western tyranny and any other country will never be tolerated again, as the days of weak and submissive China are over.
Historical background and CCP leaders
It is strange to think how the first Congress that sanctioned the birth of the powerful and affirmed Chinese Communist Party today took place in a humble building in Shanghai on July 1st 1921 (date and exact place were never completely established)where few members in a clandestine situation founded the Party on Marxist-Leninist ideology. The history of the Chinese Communist Party is revolutionary in the wake of the student and anti-imperialist movement of May 4th, 1919. To understand the reasons for the birth of the CCP, it is important to take into account the climate of uncertainty in which China raged after the fall of the Empire in 1911. At first, the Guomindang (Chinese Nationalist Party) headed the Chinese territories, led by Chiang Kai-shek. The unresolved conflict between Guomindang and the CPC only found a truce during the period of resistance against Japanese military forces, which increased the consensus among the population for the CPC. At the end of the Japanese attacks, finally annihilated by the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, Chiang Kai-shek planned to regain control of China, supported by American aid, underestimating the new strength of the People’s Liberation Army. In 1949 the civil war between Chinese nationalists and communists ended and on 1 October the People’s Republic of China was founded with Mao Zedong at the head - a key and often controversial figure in the history of the CCP, who led the country from 1943 until his death, occurred in 1976. During the totalitarianism of Mao numbered the darkest moments in Chinese history, such as the exhausting Great Leap forward to achieve a rapid industrialization of the country, and the Cultural Revolution, which caused the loss of an enormous number of literary artifacts of ancient China. The figure of Mao remains central to the current Chinese culture, a symbol of revolution and patriotism. In the years between 1978 and 1998, Deng Xiaoping took the reins of the CCP and the approval of the Four Modernizations project changed the Chinese order forever, thus taking the first steps towards market socialism.
The astute Deng sensed the usefulness of opening China’s doors to foreign markets to revive the de facto decadent state economy based only on public enterprise management. The phrase "It doesn’t matter if the cat is black or white, as long as it catches the mice it will be a good cat", with which Deng emphasized the importance of a thriving economy to establish an international Chinese hegemony, and it did not matter whether it was necessary to achieve this by "making compromises with certain capitalist policies”.
Of the same opinion of Deng Xiaoping in economic terms also seems to be the current leader of the Communist Party of China, in office since 2012, Xi Jinping.
Xi Jinping is not only one of the leading figures in the current international dynamics, but seems to receive a very broad consensus also from the Chinese population. This helps create a cult of personality around his figure, similar to that of Mao Zedong. With the elimination of the constitutional limit of two consecutive terms in 2018 and the increasing centralisation of government power in its own hands, Xi Jinping is increasingly approaching the role of totalitarian leader, Despite his speeches I always renew the intention not to interfere within the internal policies of other countries; in fact it is almost impossible to oppose his decisions on the fate of China and its inhabitants.
Over the years there has often been talk of a weakening of the power of the Communist Party of China, thanks to the internet information channels that, although censored by the government itself, It is often possible through a leak to highlight some episodes of repression which the Chinese government, even today, is stained. In this way, Chinese public opinion may change its mind. Unfortunately for the fervent supporters of democracy, judging by the recent centenary celebrations, the CCP still seems to have a long life.