Our biweekly newspaper is back to keep you informed of all facts in the world. Events follow, and turns of events don’t miss, but they are part of a daily consecutiveness dominated by shifting positions, confirmations, clashes, but also positive progresses. Human Rights, International Economics and International Organisations will characterize the following continental breakdown concerning the seven geopolitical areas, carefully analysed.
Developments in Venezuela, the optimism linked to the British economy, the contrasts within the EU member states concerning the seat on the Security Council, the tensions between Israel and Iran, constitute some of the themes presented by our team. Ever more frequent crisis keep dominating International affairs, while collaboration deals are revealed to be rare and transitional.
Our aim: trying to clarify these issues.
SUB SAHARAN AFRICA
Kenya afflicted by Al Shabaab. A terrorist attack occurred in Nairobi on January 15, and at least 21 people died, while 30 were wounded. The attack was perpetrated by six terrorists for few hours; the luxury apartments complex “Dusit D2” was the target. Reasons are linked to the historical Kenyan contrast with a terrorist group settled in a north east state bordering the country.
In fact Kenyan forces conducted many interventions n the south of Somalia since 2011, in order to expel this threat and promote the creation of the independent region of Jubaland, so Kenya became one of the central subject involved in recriminations.
Democratic Republic of the Congo, the decision was taken. Doubts about the veracity of 30 December election results remain. However, at first some of the most important Institutions – the African Union (AU) and the South African Development Community (SADC) leaded by presidents Paul Kagame (Rwanda) and Edgar Lungu (Zambia) – asked for more time and an additional counting, while now the candidate Felix Tshisekedi has been recognised by his peers (especially Cyril Ramaphosa and Uhuru Kenyatta, respectively from South Africa and Kenya), the Constitutional Court confirmed the previous results, and the AU also suspended this request. On Thursday 23 the new President pronounced his inauguration speech, and people wait for a pacific transition: for now it is due to give to Fayulu that his faction didn’t take action.
Somalia, pressure on terrorists. The US seem to be decided to curb the influence of Al Shabaab, an offshoot of Al Qaeda in the Horn of Africa. According to Acled Data, 60 air attacks have been conducted since January 2018, and they killed 450 militants, of which 300 died in the last three months. These events occur in a time when the US pass the torch to the Somali government to share information about the damages and fatalities caused by each attack.
This kind of pressure enticed the group to engage in terrorist attacks against Somalia, Ethiopia (where both the UN and independent missions are currently being implemented) and against the capital of Kenya.
Sudan, the ever deeper crisis. Al Bashir’s time might come; the President, who’s in charge since 1989, is ever more isolated in the eyes of national and international players. He’s been sentenced by the International Criminal Court, and his country is scheduled as sponsor of terrorism; also, sanctions have been applied, and Sudan can’t obtain funds from IMF anymore. The estrangement of Bashir seems to be the ideal element to strengthen the country’s economy and people’s conditions.
This eventuality may become concrete if he lost the support of the security forces.
What is worrying, however, is that some Islamic parties, that supported him, asked for a similar solution.
Zimbabwe, violence increases. The fuel prices increased 200%, that means $3,31 per litre, ad it provoked the upraising by the local population. President Mnangagwa opted for a strict reaction of the national security forces, and for blacking out internet (that’s now restored).
Data are worrying, on January 25 the Zimbabwe Human Rights NGO Forum still talked about 12 dead people but hundreds of arrests, violence and scenes reminding civil war. Polarization is deep, the population also undertook destructive actions, plunder, and violence against Authorities, and these last responded harshly too. The president called for dialogue among all parts: citizens, police, party leaders and religious authorities.
Brazil, firearms for all. Brazilian new President Jair Bolsonaro signed the decree making procedures easies to legally own a firearm. Meanwhile vice-president Mourao affirmed that Brazil recognises Guaidò as President of Venezuela, but it won’t support any military intervention in the country, as a similar action is not part of Government foreign-policy plans.
Canada, the ideal country for asylum seekers. Rahaf Mohammed al Qunun (we told her story in the last edition) landed in Canada on January 12. The 18-year-old girl escaped her Saudi family after being threatened with being killed. Canada accepted her asylum request.
Meanwhile the Canadian Ministry of the Economy announced that the investments in support of the Mexican economy will continue.
Also, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced the approved resignation of the Canadian Ambassador to China, John McMallum, without specifying any reason. It seems that his dismissal is linked to certain declarations he made over the Huawei case, but Canada’s Institutions didn’t give any confirmation.
Colombia, violence is still present. January 17 a car bomb blew up in a Police Academy in Bogota. The National Liberation Army (ELN), that claimed responsibility for the terrorist attack, is the only armed group still active in the country; peace negotiations began in February 2017 but they were suspended the following year in August, waiting for them to cease all violent actions in the country. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, better known as FARC, wrapped their weapons down and became a political party, after they found a deal with the Government.
Ecuador, the presence of Venezuelan people. The country is afflicted by violent clashes with the Venezuelan population escaping the deep crises that affected their country. On January 19 a Venezuelan pregnant woman has been killed in front of some police agents; the murder was followed by harsh xenophobic retaliations against the Venezuelan citizens present in the country. Ecuador is known for high rates of murders and violence against women.
Mexico, humanitarian welcome. President Andrés Manuel Lòpez Obrador authorized the humanitarian welcome for migrants coming from Honduras, granting them a (renewable) permit of residence valid for a year. It allows them to work, access to health and education services, and to have board and lodging in case of need.
Nicaragua, press freedom. Journalist Carlos Fernando Chamorro, chief of “Confidencial” lives in exile in Costa Rica in order to keep working to inform people and document Daniel Ortega’s regime. In Nicaragua journalists Miguel Mora and Lucia Pineda Ubau are in jail for over a month for carrying out their job as journalists independently. The European Union condemns the strict repression conducted by Ortega’s regime, considering a similar action as an attack on democracy, human rights and civil freedoms, that aggravates the social and political crisis. The president of the European Parliament, Antonio Tajani has announced that sanctions against Nicaragua will be applied.
However Ortega’s regime is supported by Bolivia, Cuba, North Korea and Venezuela.
Panama, Youth World Day. During the days in which Venezuela’s situation got bad, on arrival in Panama, Pope Francis expressed his closeness to the families of the victims. He follows the developments of the situation, calling for a pacific and democratic transition, also thanks to the work that the Holy See does through bishops and local priests.
United States of America sustain the Guaidò presidency. The Pentagon and the Department of State are trying to push harder on Venezuela’s Armed Forces that sustain President Maduro, for abandoning the regime. Also, the Secretary of State communicated that the US Embassy in Caracas stays open and it improves contacts with new president Guaidò.
The US shutdown. A plan of investments in the national External Security that enhances the internal security. Penitentiaries are characterized by a serious prison escape risk, surveillance decreased, and many federal agents are on medical leave. The missing remuneration of federal personnel, except for parliamentarians, has dramatic consequences in the country.
“The real enemy of Middle East is Iran” said Secretary of State Mike Pompeo during his Speech in Cairo. The US sustain that Iran is responsible for Assad’s activities in Syria Hezbollah’s actions in Lebanon.
Venezuela, the country between two Presidents. On 23 January Guaidò proclaimed himself interim President. He referred to a constitutional amendment allowing the President of the Parliament to lead a transitional government until new elections are held. He International Community divided itself sustaining President Maduro or the new interim President (we recommend to check the specific sections in order to have a complete perspective concerning each country). Meanwhile in Venezuela protests and repressions conducted by the Police and the military faction supporting Maduro go on.
Malaysia, a new Sultan to the throne. Abdullah became king of the country and took his oath of office the last Thursday, replacing his predecessor Muhammad V, who abdicated, surprising everybody, after only a two year mandate.
in Malaysia the Sultan holds office for five years, and he is then replaced in a rotating system that’s unique of its kind. In fact it is an electoral system providing that nine Sovereigns from Malay States take part in the “Conference of Rulers” and elect a king and his deputy. The other four States (for a total of 13 States) are ruled by governors.
Philippines, referendum and terrorism. The country is afflicted by violent clashes between the Christian majority and the Muslim minority for almost fifty years. This week, in the Mindanao region, the largest island in the South of Philippines, a referendum to obtain an autonomous Statute, independent from the State has been approved (last Monday), and then (last Sunday) a terrorist attack has been conducted against a Catholic church in the city of Jolo, during which at least 20 people have been killed, and more than 100 have been wounded. The town had refused to hold the referendum. Yesterday in the late afternoon ISIS claimed responsibility for the attack. The governor of the region, Hataman, declared that it may be a long shot to establish a causal link between these events.
North Korea, the second historical meeting. The white House has announced that a second meeting between the US President and the North Korean dictator will be held in February. Seven months have passed since 12 June, when Trump got a diplomatic victory, and noe he seems to have done the same, confirming the success obtained in facing the “rogue state”.
Government sources, however, confirm that sanctions will be still applied, but there is a good degree of optimism concerning negotiations.
CENTRAL WESTERN EUROPE AND EUROPEAN UNION
Spain and Germany positions on Venezuela. Angela Merkel’s spokesman, Steffen Seibert affirms that the German government is considering whether recognize the President of the Parliament Juan Guaidò as head of State of Venezuela or not. Seibert says: “Maduro cannot claim legitimacy, given that the last elections didn’t respect the democratic standards. Our wish is that Europe express itself with a unique voice about this catastrophic economic and democratic crisis”. The European Union began to act too, in fact talks among different European countries and Federica Mogherini, High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, have started.
Friday 25 January, Spain declared that it will recognise Juan Guaidò as legitimate president of Venezuela if Maduro won’t hold free elections. In fact, the Minister for Foreign Affairs said: “ If Venezuelan regime doesn’t want to call for elections, we will call for adopting other measures, among which even recognising Guaidò as interim head of State”.
Finland, a new state model. Ex Finnish PM Alexander Stubb affirms that globalization failed in redistributing wealth, the Nordic model is the answer. The Nordic model means a social world, and no more a capitalist structure, where populist movements can be curbed. The Nordic system aims to reduce social inequalities through a regulatory system that grants social rights and promotes social mobility and meritocracy. The state takes care of people for all their lifetime, and Scandinavian countries’ governments give priority to their citizens.
Turkey and its relations with the EU. Erdoğan sustains that the European Union doesn’t keep the promises it made to Turkey with regard to migration issue, as the 2016 Agreement 6 Billions had been promised to Turkey , while the European Union only gave ¼ of the amount. The agreement also provided visa liberalisation for Turkish citizens, for every Syrian refugee sent to Turkey from Greek islands, another Syrian citizen would have be displaced from Turkey to the European Union through humanitarian channels; also, migrants on the Balkans trail will be sent in Turkey if they won’t apply for asylum to the Greek authorities. This last measure was necessary to put an end to human suffering, and it was supposed to restore order.
CENTRAL EASTERN EUROPE AND RUSSIA
Novator missile and doubts on the INF Treaty. Russia released the new Novator 9M729 missile, belonging to the new generation of missile system Iskander-M. The US, that didn’t take part in the presentation event, consider the new jewel of Moscow as not compatible with the INF Treaty, because of its exceeding range of 5500 km; worries concern the oblast of Kaliningrad that could make Western Europe vulnerable, if it was armed with similar missiles. The Russia Defence Ministry instead sustains its compatibility with the Treaty.
Russia considers Maduro as the legitimate leader of Venezuela. In a note of the Foreign Ministry, Russia has affirmed that it will keep recognising Maduro as legitimate President of Venezuela, declaring that Juan Guaidò’s self-proclamation constitutes a dangerous “foreign interference” in the country; and that this event may provoke a civil war. For Russia, supporting Maduro is a symbol marking the strategic relevance of Venezuela for Russian political plans.
Central Eastern Europe
Ukraine is waiting for elections. Yulia Tymoshenko, ex leader of the Orange Revolution in 2004, communicated her intention to run in the next elections of 2019; a candidate who stands for NATO and EU membership, refuses Russian politics, and she’s decided to take back the Donbass separatist region. This is the country that Tymoshenko claims for all citizens.
The candidate obtained consent form certain groups, among which Georgian ex President Mikheil Saakashvili.
Yanukovich sentenced for high treason. An additional relevant news come from Ukraine: ex Ukraine President Viktor Yanukovich, who fled to Russia after the events occurred in 2014, has been sentenced for “high treason” by a Court of Kiev. The sentence has been motivated by ex President’s actions, considered dangerous for Ukraine national security, a kind of conspiracy with Russia’s acts against Ukraine territorial integrity.
Kosovo and Serbia, further tensions related to tariffs. Prime Minister of Kosovo, Ramush Haradinaj declared his intention to keep applying duties at 100% against Serbia and Bosnia Herzegovina. It is a serious worry both for Brussels, that fears a worsening of the already difficult dialogue between Pristine and Belgrade; in fact Serbian PM Vučić kept declaring Serbia’s firm positions on non-recognition of the independence of Kosovo. It is thought that only big power’s mediation, especially Moscow and Washington, might break the deadlock because of their influence in the Balkans.
Macedonia, the historical agreement. The Greek Parliament approved the bilateral agreement between Greek PM Tsipras and the Macedonian one, Zaev to modify Macedonia’s name into “Republic of North Macedonia”. It is an historical agreement marking the end of a cultural dispute that lasted for almost 30 years, and to the Greek opposition to Macedonia EU and NATO membership
Andrea Maria Vassallo.
MIDDLE EAST AND NORTHERN AFRICA (MENA)
Syria what’s left of the Islamic State? The last week ISIS perpetrated a suicide attack against a patrol unit of the international coalition (leaded by the US) in Manbij, that’s an area controlled by Arabic and Kurdish forces, in the northeast of Aleppo. The death toll from the attack is about thirty victims, among which 4 American soldiers. A similar action risks to prejudice Trump’s choice to retire his troops from Syria, flaming local tensions. Vice President Mike Pence declared that the US will prevent the Islamic State to reorganise itself and take back territories. Heads of the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF, US allies) gave further reassurances announcing the imminent conclusion of the battle against Daesh militia in Southeast of Syria. “I believe that during the next month we will officially announce the end of the militarypresence on the ground of the so-called caliphate” affirmed Mazloum Kobani, Commander-in-chief of the SDF.
Israel isn’t hidden by its attacks in Syria anymore. On January 21 the Israeli air force conducted an extended air raid against a series of Quds Iranian forces (pasdaran) military targets. The attack occurred as reaction to a ground-to-air missile launch against Golan Heights - that has been intercepted by the anti-missile system Iron Dome. During the last weeks Tel Aviv clearly increased its military engagement in Syria against Iran. Furthermore, while during the past months attacks against Iranian installations (or Convoys) were secretly perpetrated and they were not confirmed, an official statement openly claimed responsibility for the up-mentioned air raid (completely new procedure).
The abandonment of the traditional opaque strategy characterizing Israeli air strikes, constitutes a clear message for Teheran: Israel will keep playing a key role in Syria (according to offensive capabilities and deterrence) despite US retirement.
Afghanistan between terrorist attacks and negotiates. Historically the Afghan State has always had a huge significance in the jihadist landscape: the ideologies and strategic directions that influenced the armed Islam were born there, just as some of the main fighters of the Islamic Radicalism were trained in the country. Currently, ISIS operates in Afghanistan through its local wing ”Wilayah Khorasan”. However the presence of the caliphate takes second place if considering the weight of Taliban, the historical insurgent group of Afghanistan. They are responsible for the attack occurred on January 21 against a military base not far from Kabul, that provoked dozens of deaths - some local sources say more than 100.
Despite the attack, some talks between American agents and some faction of the Afghan terrorist group are currently held in Qatar. According to declarations of Taliban, on January 26 both parts signed a draft agreement to end the conflict in Afghanistan (some Taliban delegates leaked the first details of the agreement, and the US diplomacy hasn’t confirmed nor denied).
Turkey’s rivalries and friendships. The announce of the US troops retirements from northeast of Syria made arise the level of local tensions: in the last weeks Ankara strengthened the intensity of its threats against YPG Kurdish militia – accused of sustaining the PKK party.
Concerning the Kashoggi case instead, contrasts between Turkey and Saudi Arabia go on. Also the UN decided to start an independent mission to clarify the murder of the dissident Saudi journalist.
International experts will travel to Turkey to conduct the investigation.
Furthermore, concerning the Venezuelan crisis, Erdoğan expressed himself in favour of Maduro. “You’re not alone, big-hearted man. Turkey is with you”- said the Turkish president during a call with his Venezuelan homologous.
Australia, the government is allowed to ask production companies to decrypt smartphones. That’s what the new effective law provides. Apple declared to be against the law, just as it did after the terrorist attack in San Bernardino (USA) in 2015, because devices decryption would risk the security of other devices, becoming a problem for million users.
Australia’s heat. The heat in Australia reached highest temperature ever recorded, causing forest fires, several deaths among the wildlife, and a rise of hospitalizations.
Angola. Since the new penal code has been adopted, on January 23 Angola officially decriminalized homosexuality, that was defined as “vice against nature”. Also, the Government banned every kind of discrimination according to sexual orientation, and established a two years sentence. “The case of Angola represents an important step towards a more equal world” declared Human Rights Watch, “The 69 other countriesaround the world that still criminalize consensual same-sex conduct should follow its lead”.
Egypt. Three years ago the Italian 28-year-old researcher Giulio Regeni disappeared in Cairo. When his lifeless body was found, on February 3 on the outskirts of town, it was unrecognizable because of the tortures he suffered. Since then the Italian authorities have never stop investigating. Nowadays the State’s attorney of Rome, Giuseppe Pignatone, and the public minister Sergio Colaicco individuated five people: they are all Secret Service agents and Egyptian policemen, suspected to have played a role in the kidnapping of the Italian boy.
The D.A. of Cairo however refused to cooperate with the Italian authorities. Regeni was in Egypt to carry out research for his doctoral thesis about Egyptian syndicates.
Mali. The Nigerian Anti-Trafficking agency found thousands of disappeared Nigerian girls in Mali. According to what the Agency reported, between 20.000 and 45.000 girls were found, the most of them were sold as sex slaves. The majority of them was kidnapped while going to school, and they were deceived with false job offers. The agency is currently working to take the girls back home. Sadly, in Nigeria this kind of events are not a novelty: since 2014 until today, more than 2000 young girls have been kidnapped by Boko Haram, and used as sex slaves, fighters, or even suicide bombers. Unfortunately, the same happens to Nigerian migrant women: according to an Amnesty International report, 80% of Nigerian women who arrived in Italy has been subject to sexual violence.
Mediterranean Sea. On January 19, a boat with 120 people plunged near the Libyan coasts.
Only 3 people survived thanks to the intervention of an helicopter of the Italian Navy. Survivors were rescued after they spent three hours in the water in hypothermic conditions, and they were taken to the hospital of Lampedusa. Once recovered, they told about violence they suffered in Libya, and declared “dying is better than being back in Libya”. Few time later, 53 more migrants died in a second accident occurred between Morocco and Spain. The UN High Commission for Refugees asked States to act in order to prevent further deaths in the Mediterranean Sea, and avoid to send migrants back to Libya.
Mediterranean Sea. In its 70 pages report “No Escape from Hell: EU Policies Contribute to Abuse of Migrants in Libya”, Human Rights Watch accused Europe to voluntarily ignore violence perpetrated against migrants in Libya. In particular, according to the NGO the support given by the EU, and especially by Italy, to the Libyan coastguard contributes to intercept migrants, and arbitrarily detain them in inhuman and degrading detention conditions. The European Union responded declaring that the dialogue between the EU and Libya in based on humanitarian principles and respect for Human Rights.
INTERNATIONAL FINANCE AND ECONOMICS
China, Germany and Italy. Data on the Chinese economy have been published, and they look positive: import reached +7%, and export signed +12%. But Asiatic markets react negatively because, if we carefully analyse these results, we can remark that the growth is due to the action of those companies which anticipated sells/purchases to avoid the effects of future tariffs. In fact, the months of December reveals the fall of imports for 7,6% and exports decreased of 4,4%.
Consequences immediately affected China’s main commercial partner, Germany, which expected growth has halved, decreasing from 1,9% to 1%.
But Italy has been affected too, as its export depends on the performance of German and Chinese markets: in December the Italian export decreased of 5,6%. Given that export plays a key role, as it constitute 26% of the GDP, a technical recession is expected (as growth was negative for two following trimesters) in 2018, and forecasts for 2019 growth decreased to 0,6%.
United Kingdom. Theresa May lost in the 15 January elections, expected to approve the Brexit plan but, although the deadline fixed for march 29 is ever closer, and the eventuality to exit without finding a deal is becoming concrete, British financial markets seem to not pay attention to these events, as they keep showing positive trends. The optimist is due to the IMF forecasts, that estimates a high growth rate, employment taxes reached historic highs, and the value of the British Sterling too.
United States. On the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, the longest federal government shutdown of the US history (34 days) finally ended, even if it only stops until February 15, waiting for a permanent deal. Political tensions have been added to the already present trade difficulties, and risked to downward markets, but they have been balanced by trimester results issued between January and February.
Among these factors, the prevailing element was the performance of companies listed on Wall Street as, despite its political relevance, the shutdown had contained effects, damaging only 0,02% of the US GDP, according to UBS. The good results from the banking sector made Wall Street grow of 7% since the beginning of the year, despite negative expectations due to the increasing interest rates.
John Bogle. John “Jack” Bogle died Thursday 16 January, at 89 years. He’s been the legendary creator of “The Vanguard” investment fund, the first index fund that outlined the general trend of markets. The Vanguard became one of the main investment companies, earning around 5100 Billion Dollars in management assets. The Nobel laureate economist Paul Samuelson said that “his invention is comparable to the wheel, wine, cheese, or to the alphabet”. Jack has been an unusual character in the Wall Street foreground, given that Vanguard is a non-profit company that gives his profits back to the investors. This last characteristic earned him the nomination as “un-American”, before that he was officially recognised for being the person who democratised finance.
Jeff Bezos (Amazon). He currently is the richest man in the world, with an estimated patrimony of 137 Billion Dollars, but he risks to get out bad from the divorce likely to be the most expensive of the history. In fact Bezos wasn’t even rich before his marriage, and he didn’t sign any prenuptial agreement. The law of the State of Washington, where he lives, provides that the patrimony accumulated during the years of marriage has to be divided in two equal parts, that is 68,5 billion Dollars. This amount would make MacKenzie Tull the richest woman in the world, and the fourth richest person in the world. But another relevant consequence is that Bezos may lose a half of 16% of Amazon shares, that allows him to lead the company: decreasing to 8%, the Vanguard fund, with equity at 6%, might pose a challenge to the control of the most capitalised company in the world.
We (almost) all are 1%. Monday 21 January OXFAM published the annual report on economic inequalities, and also in 2018 the world became more unequal. The 26 richest men in the world in fact, own the same amount of wealth of the world’s poorer half (3,8 billion people), while in 2017 and 2016 respectively 46 and 61 men held the same wealth.
Italy reproduces this trend, as 5% of the population holds the same wealth as the poorest 90%, that’s 43,7% of the national wealth.
But the situation is more complicated than it seems; in fact, in 2018 it was “sufficient” to earn an (gross) annual income of 28.360 Euros, that’s accessible to all, in the western countries, but it should make us reflect on the entity of inequalities in the distribution of wealth.
ONU-United Nations. The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights will send technical staff to monitor acts of violence and racism against migrants, African people and rom.
President Nicolas Maduro sent Foreign Minister Jorge Arreaza to attend the reunion of the Security Council concerning Venezuela’s crisis. The permanent representative of Russian Federation has came out in support of Venezuela, specifying that the crisis doesn’t represent a danger for international stability. The Russian representative mentioned the French yellow vests as example of domestic problems, underlining that there must be no interference in the internal affairs of third countries. The US instead came out in support of new President Guaidò, such as other states did; they are ready to call for elections and give economic support to face the humanitarian crisis, food and health crisis that occurs.
The EU Security Council seat is back as subject of debate. Italy stresses the necessity of a EU seat, while France and Germany sustain that it is important to have a seat for both states: France is already present, while Germany sustains that it is a priority for the country.
OAS- Organisation of American States. Members of this Organisation have been invited by the US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo to recognize the Guaidò presidency, as Ecuador and countries of the “Lima Group” (Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Paraguay and Peru.
NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. Albania’s president welcomed the construction of the first OTAN air base in the country, near the airport of Kuchova. In Georgia instead, the alliance strengthened the cooperation with the Georgian naval forces in the Black Sea, because of Russia’s military presence.
Framing the World is a project designed and created thanks to a team of Mondo Internazionale associates’ collaboration.
Andrea Maria Vassallo: Eastern Europe and Russian Federation
Camilla Frezza: South Eastern Asia
Leonardo Aldeghi: Economics and International Finance
Marcello Alberizzi: Sub-Saharan Africa
Marta Stroppa: Human Rights
Martina Oneta: Central Western Europe and European Union
Michele Pavan: America, Oceania, International Organisations
Stefano Sartorio: Asia and Far East
Vincenzo Battaglia: Middle East and Northern Africa.
Translated by Simona Maria Vallefuoco
Original article: https://mondointernazionale.com/framing-the-world-ii-edizione
Published on 27/01/2019