The Chanunpa or Calumet is the name of the traditional sacred pipe used by the Sioux of North America (Lakota) during the most important ceremonies.
According to legend, it was offered by Ptesáŋwiŋ (White Buffalo Calf Woman: Young Woman White Bison), the sacred woman of supernatural origin of central importance in the Lakota religion as the main cultural prophet, to the brothers of the tribe. Intended as the instrument of connection between the physical and the metaphysical world, the Chanunpa allowed those who had smoked the pipe to approach the Wakan Tanka, the "Great Mystery". Its structure, in fact, symbolized the union of men to the Earth: the torch, traditionally made of white ash wood, represented men and, through the smoke derived from the burning of grasses or sage, it came into contact with the stone stove that represented Mother Earth.
Chanunpa was used mainly during important ceremonies, such as alliances, pacts or important unions.